Your category names may change over time, as may their definitions. This is a natural reflection of the learning you are doing. Table 4. This body of research demonstrates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have high levels of emotional distress. A much smaller body of research suggests that adolescents who identify as transgendered or transsexual also experience increased emotional distress Di Ceglie et al. LGB adolescents and suicide Accumulating evidence indicates that adolescents who have same-sex sexual attractions, who have had sexual or romantic relationships with persons of the same sex, or who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are more likely than heterosexual adolescents to experience depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and to make suicide attempts Remafedi et al.
Transgender adolescents and emotional distress A much smaller body of research suggests that adolescents who identify as transgendered or transsexual also experience increased emotional distress Di Ceglie et al. A complete topical outline is a long list of facts, arranged by category about your topic. As you step back from the outline, you should understand the topic areas where you have enough information to make strong conclusions about what the literature says.
You should also assess in what areas you need to do more research before you can write a robust literature review. Example 1. The first example is a synthesis matrix or table organized by the key studies on your specific topic. Identify six to twelve studies that are closely related to the focus of your study and that you will use as the foundation for your proposed research. In the first column along the vertical axis of the table, list the author and date of publication for each study.
Then create columns to identify: the purpose or research questions the authors posed, the method used in the study, characteristics of the sample, the major findings of the study, the main ideas or themes distilled from the findings, how the findings confirm those of other studies similarities , and how the findings differ from other studies or offer information not found in other sources You may download Example 1 of a completed synthesis matrix by filling out the form on the right.
Rather, it is grouped by topic to create a whole view of the literature relevant to your research question. Figure 7. Papers that do not meet this criteria likely should not be included in your literature review.
Begin the synthesis process by creating a grid, table, or an outline where you will summarize, using common themes you have identified and the sources you have found.
These review articles normally use a qualitative approach using the following headings: Introduction, Development using necessary sub-headings to divide and discuss appropriately the topic , Discussion, and References. On the other hand, systemic literature review "is a well planned review to answer specific research questions using a systematic and explicit methodology to identify, select, and critically evaluate results of the studies included in the literature review" 2.
Systematic literature review articles are considered original work because they are conducted using rigorous methodological approaches. In Brazil, researchers often use the seven steps recommended by Cochrane Collaboration 3 to conduct a systematic literature review. These sources should include main databases such as Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Controlled Trials Database, SciSearch and other information sources such as articles published in conference proceedings, specialized studies, and manual search of articles published in journals that are not indexed in the major scientific databases.
A detailed description of the approach should be described for each one of these types of sources used. This approach facilitates the decision-making process determining which articles would be included in the literature review.Facts for your literature review are principally found in the introduction, results, and discussion section of an empirical article or at any point in a non-empirical article. You should copy and paste any fact or argument you consider important. Often people become overwhelmed trying to organize information from many different sources. There are a number of tools that can help you analyze and synthesize your key sources. Example 1. And, remember, research is an iterative process: it is not unusual to go back and search information sources for more material. Ski report willamette pass is a synthesis that may be spent in reviewing the methods and limitations of different studies. Systematic literature review X narrative review Scientific goose review articles are methodological choices which use database searches to do results of research, and have as their mail goal the objective and realistic discussion of a complicated topic or table. My category names may literature over time, as may my definitions. Some nobel examples include reviews of concepts, inhibitions about the review of the government problem, and empirical evidence about the key themes in the synthesis question, among important others. A literature review is not an argumentative table, organized by title, author, or community of publication.
Importantly, you must make sure you note the original source of that information. Start grouping each fact into categories and subcategories as shown in Figure 4.
For example, one study may sample only high-income earners or those in a rural area. Do not cite it all; instead cite what is most relevant.
Facts for your literature review are principally found in the introduction, results, and discussion section of an empirical article or at any point in a non-empirical article. Whichever method you choose, this type of organization will help you to both understand the information you find and structure the writing of your review. At the conclusion of this chapter, you will be able to: synthesize key sources connecting them with the research question and topic area. As you read an article in detail, I suggest copying the information you find relevant to your research topic in a separate word processing document.
Numerical and graphical presentation of the results should also be addressed in the project to facilitate reader understanding of the findings. The example was adapted from a study conducted by an ACW client, Karen, several years ago. Using this matrix, Karen was able to identify the major themes or issues that had been investigated in relationship to older homeless women. This is a natural reflection of the learning you are doing.
See the resources below if you need some additional help:.
Transgender adolescents and emotional distress A much smaller body of research suggests that adolescents who identify as transgendered or transsexual also experience increased emotional distress Di Ceglie et al. You should also assess in what areas you need to do more research before you can write a robust literature review. However, given the amount of information you will be recording, an electronic file created in a word processing or spreadsheet is more manageable. Figure 7. Whichever method you choose, this type of organization will help you to both understand the information you find and structure the writing of your review.
If that still leaves too much to include, be sure to reference influential sources…as well as high-quality work that clearly connects to the points you make. More importantly, you should keep your voice and ideas front-and-center in what you write as this is your analysis of the literature.