The second hypothesis states that people learn more about events that match their mood state. Both hypotheses are consistent with the network model of mood and memory proposed by Bower and his colleagues. Our study was conducted to test the cited hypotheses with normal subjects instead of highly hypnotizable subjects as in the studies by Bower et al.
Another aim was to test different predictions from the two hypotheses. We experimentally varied mood happy vs. Additionally, the emotional content pleasant vs. The empirical evidence with some restrictions favored the mood-state-dependent hypothesis and disagreed with the mood-congruity hypothesis. Possible explanations for the failure to obtain a mood-congruity effect are offered, and the results are discussed with reference to a network model of mood and memory.
This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Preview Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. References Asendorpf, J.
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Rather, music listening affects subsequent cognitive functioning through the indirect effect or the mediation effect of emotional reactions. In the arousal-and-mood hypothesis, emotional reactions were defined according to two orthogonal dimensions in the circumplex model of emotions Russell, ; Russell et al.
As Husain et al. Specifically, arousal was defined as the degree of physical and psychological activation, i. Furthermore, the arousal-and-mood hypothesis seems to put a specific emphasis on the importance of a moderate arousal level and a positive valence of emotional reactions in subsequent cognitive functioning. Following this logic, it has been argued that any pleasant or enjoyable stimulus, either musical or non-musical, that arouses a positive hedonic tone at a moderate level can enhance the performance of cognitive functioning Schellenberg et al.
Indeed, some indirect empirical evidence are available to support the arousal-and-mood hypothesis primarily in the intelligence domain. Such research findings generally illustrated that as long as the music was positively arousing, a parallel improvement was also evident in the subsequent performance on an intelligence test e.
The study of the arousal-and-mood hypothesis is important because it offers an explanation as to why some individuals benefit from music listening and enhance their cognitive performance after music exposure, whereas others do not. This explanation helps explain the inconsistent findings regarding the Mozart effect. It also provides a framework to understand for whom and under what circumstances music listening enhances cognitive functioning and the mechanisms through which music exposure is effective.
Extending the Study of the Arousal-and-Mood Hypothesis to Creativity The study of the arousal-and-mood hypothesis is important, and previous empirical examinations of it have predominantly focused on intelligence.
Thus, the present study aimed to extend the research on this hypothesis to creativity. Creativity, commonly conceptualized as consisting of originality and appropriateness, has been regarded as a key human resource for both personal and societal success Sternberg and Lubart, ; Sternberg et al. Empirical research findings suggest that creative thinking is correlated with intelligence to some degree e.
These conceptualizations and research findings suggest that creativity and intelligence are two different psychological constructs that are interrelated to a certain extent.
Because the arousal-and-mood hypothesis posits that the effect of music exposure should be replicable with other tests of cognitive functioning, it is expected that the hypothesis can also be generalized to the domain of creativity. Given that the existing empirical evidence for the arousal-and-mood hypothesis is predominantly in the intelligence domain, extending the study of the hypothesis to the creativity domain would help examine the generalizability of the hypothesis.
The existing literature seems to lack direct empirical examinations of how emotional reactions mediate the effect of music exposure on creativity. However, three different lines of relevant research work appear to support the possibility of the mediation effect.
The first line of research concerns the effect of music exposure and creativity. Studies demonstrate a positive relationship between music exposure and enhanced performance on creativity measures e. The second line of research documents a link between music exposure and emotion induction. These studies consistently demonstrate that music exposure is effective in inducing emotions e. Finally, the third line of research is based on the rich literature on the mood-creativity link.
A large body of research suggests that aroused emotions significantly enhance creative functioning e. In summary, an integration of these three separate lines of evidence suggests the possible mediation effect of emotional reactions on the music-creativity link. Indeed, Schellenberg et al. They showed that 5-year-old Japanese children obtained higher scores on a creative drawing task subsequent to listening to familiar songs or singing songs that they liked.
The research finding of Schellenberg et al. Hence, the present study aimed to advance the design of Schellenberg et al. By obtaining data on the changes in arousal or valence in response to music listening, the mediation effect of arousal and valence on the relationship between music and creativity can be directly tested.
Extending the Study of the Arousal-and-Mood Hypothesis Using Both Positively and Negatively Arousing Music The second aim of this study was to examine the arousal-and-mood hypothesis in the creativity domain using both positively and negatively arousing music.
However, this theoretical notion appears to be inconsistent with the existing literature with respect to the mood-creativity relationship. Although many researchers, in line with the arousal-and-mood hypothesis, have highlighted the facilitative roles of positive emotions in creativity e. For example, in their dual pathway to creativity model, Baas et al. In a similar vein, Schwarz , in their feelings-as-information theory, argued that both positive and negative emotions could contribute to creativity by eliciting different types of information-processing strategies.
Positive emotions may indicate a state of well-being and are therefore accompanied by a relaxed and playful approach to information processing, which is favorable for idea generation. On the contrary, negative emotions may indicate the presence of danger and therefore require systematic, detail-oriented thinking strategies that may help with idea evaluation. Both idea generation and idea evaluation contribute significantly to creative thinking. Indeed, many empirical studies regarding the relationship between induced emotions and creativity suggest that not only positive emotion but also negative emotion can enhance creative thinking see Baas et al.
The research findings regarding the complex relationship between mood and creativity led to a challenge to the notion that a positive emotional state is more important than a negative emotional state in the facilitation of creative performance Kaufmann and Vosburg, ; George and Zhou, ; Gasper, ; Shalley et al.
This challenge is also applicable to the prediction of the arousal-and-mood hypothesis with respect to the role of positive arousal valence in creative thinking. The question arises regarding whether the arousal-and-mood hypothesis is limited to positively aroused emotions.
It is interesting to investigate whether the arousal-and-mood hypothesis can be generalized to negatively aroused emotions, as suggested by the literature on the mood-creativity relationship. Addressing this question can help enrich the discourse on the arousal-and-mood hypothesis and enhance the understanding of the effect of music listening on creative thinking. In their empirical attempt to examine the arousal-and-mood hypothesis in the creativity domain, Schellenberg et al.
It remains unclear whether similar enhancements in creativity can be observed if negatively arousing music is used.The latter variable refers to whether participants were rating their own control over the outcome via the action or the control exerted by the context. Only students who returned signed consent forms were invited to participate in the study. Laboratory induction of mood states through the reading of self-referent mood statements: Affective changes or demand characteristics? Six hundred and sixty three participants entered the survey and males and females completed all questionnaires and the contingency learning creative writing retreats europe. The Psychological Record, 33, - Previous studies have also supported the validity of the Grid by showing significant researches hypothesis the Affect Grid and state measures of mood and affect, such as the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Profile of Mood States e. The mood of depression symptoms was consistent across moderator and mediator analyses, no direct relation was evident between control and BDI scores.
Researchers have been increasingly interested in the possible impacts of music exposure on cognitive functioning, including intelligence and creativity Schellenberg, ; Schellenberg et al. Following this logic, it has been argued that any pleasant or enjoyable stimulus, either musical or non-musical, that arouses a positive hedonic tone at a moderate level can enhance the performance of cognitive functioning Schellenberg et al. These findings are consistent with the idea that values affect contingency learning.
Differential effects of induced mood on retrieval of pleasant and unpleasant events from episodic memory. Following completion of both conditions, participants were redirected to a thank you screen containing debriefing information and links to support information. Researchers have been increasingly interested in the possible impacts of music exposure on cognitive functioning, including intelligence and creativity Schellenberg, ; Schellenberg et al. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, —
For example, in their dual pathway to creativity model, Baas et al.